Main Industries and Occupations at Risk
- Milling of manganese ore;
- Manufacture of dry-cell batteries (manganese dioxide);
- Iron and steel industry as a reagent to reduce sulphur and oxygen;
- Manganese electroplating;
- Manufacture of paints, varnishes, inks and dyes, fertilisers, feed additives, disinfectants and bleaching agents, glass and ceramics (decolouriser and colouring agent);
- Manufacture of matches and fireworks;
- Manufacture of potassium permanganate;
- Welding operations with manganese-coated rods;
- Water treatment;
- Exposure to fuel additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) and mangafodipir to increase octane level of gasoline and improve anti-knock properties of fuel.
Any exposure to manganese and its compounds
Types of Tests and Frequency of Examinations
- Pre-placement medical examination: within three months of exposure
- Clinical examination shall include a detailed medical and work history with emphasis on:
- i. past, present and anticipated future exposure to manganese;
- ii. behavioural and neurological changes (speech and emotional disturbances, hypertonia, tremor, equilibrium, gait, handwriting and adiadochokinesis).
- i. Urine manganese (U-Mn) estimation on post-shift urine specimen collected at end of workweek, corrected to SG of 1.016.
- Unfit for exposure to manganese:
- i. Persons diagnosed with Parkinsonism.
- Periodic medical examinations: every 12 months
- Clinical examination with particular emphasis on the CNS;
- Estimation of urinary manganese (U-Mn) estimation a post-shift urine specimen at collected end of workweek, corrected to SG of 1.016
- BTLV for urinary manganese (U-Mn) = 50 mcg/L Action level for U-Mn = 40 mcg/L