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Ultrasound Breast

Purpose:

  • To access unusual nipple discharge
  • To evaluate cases of mastitis/ inflammation of mammary tissue
  • To eveluate breasts implants
  • To access symptoms like breast pain, redness and swelling
  • To access skin changes, like discolouration
  • To monitor existing benign lump

Preparation prior US breasts:

  • No fasting required
  • No body powder/ perfume/ deodorants (It can affect the quality of films)
  • No ointments/ creams to breasts/ underarms  (It can distort the images / appearing like calcifications or calcium deposit)
  • No jewellery around neck area.

Ultrasound Abdomen

To look into the abdominal solid organs – liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, kidneys and bladder.

Purpose:

  • Evaluate causes of abdominal pain / symptoms
  • Diagnose or treat ascites
  • Look for stones in the gallbladder or kidney

Preparation for procedure:

  • Fasting for at least 8 hrs prior scan (No food/drinks)
  • For ultrasound kidneys / bladder, you may need a full bladder
  • Take medication with small sips of water
  • For diabetic patient, insulin is allowed

How the test is performed:

  • Ultrasound machine makes images of organs and structures inside the body by sending out high frequency sounds waves that reflect off body structure, unlike X-ray/ CT scans, this test does not expose you to ionizing radiation.
  • You may feel a little discomfort, the conducting gel may feel a little cold and wet.

Ultrasound Thyroid

  • Use high-frequency sound waves to create an image of your thyroid
  • Purpose:
    To screen high risk patients for thyroid malignancy, eg patients with history of familial thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type II and irradiated neck in childhood
    To confirm presence of a thyroid nodule when physical examination is equivocal
    To differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid masses, based on their sonographic appearance.
    To differentiate between thyroid nodules and other cervical masses like lymphadenopathy, thyroglossal cyst and cystic hygroma.
    To evaluate diffuse changes in thyroid parenchyma.
    To detect post-operative residual or recurrent tumor in thyroid bed or metastases to neck lymph nodes.
    To guide diagnostic (FNA cytology/biopsy) and therapeutic interventional procedures.
  • Benefits of US thyroid:
    Cheaper
    Accurate
    Safe and painless
  • Preparation of US thyroid:
    No fasting required
    Lie on supine position with hyperextended neck
  • Limitation of US thyroid:
    Unable to determine thyroid function(Overactive/underactive/normal)

Note: There is no blood test that can detect thyroid cancer

Ultrasound Pelvis – (Ovaries and Uterus – for ladies)

  • Purpose:
    To assess the gynecological health, and evaluate for signs of ovarian cysts, sexually transmitted infections, uterine fibroids or early-stage cancer.
    To investigate gynaecological symptoms such as pelvic pain, irregular or prolonged cycles.
  • Preparation:
    Drink 1L of water 1hr prior to scan
    No fasting required
    Avoid carbonated drinks
  • Risks:
    No radiation risks, unlike X-ray and CT scan which involve ionizing radiation.
    A little discomfort with the cold and wet conducting gel.

Ultrasound Prostate (For male)

  • Who should undergo ultrasound prostate:
    Male > 40 yrs old
    If you notice unusual symptoms: trouble urinating, blood in urine, lumps/ cysts around your rectum
    If you are at increased risk of prostate cancer
  • Preparation:
    Drink 1L of water 1hr prior to scan
    No fasting required
    Avoid carbonated drinks
  • Risks:
    No radiation risks, unlike X-ray and CT scan which involve ionizing radiation.
    A little discomfort with the cold and wet conducting gel.