- To assess unusual nipple discharge
- To evaluate cases of mastitis/inflammation of mammary tissue
- To evaluate breasts implants
- To assess symptoms like breast pain, redness, swelling, skin changes/discolouration
- To monitor existing benign lump
Preparation prior US breasts:
- No fasting required
- No body powder/perfume/deodorants (It can affect the quality of films)
- No ointments/creams to breasts/underarms (It can distort the images/appearing like calcifications or calcium deposit)
- No jewellery around neck area.
To look into the abdominal solid organs – liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, kidneys and bladder.
- Evaluate causes of abdominal pain/other symptoms
- Diagnose or treat ascites
- Look for stones in the gallbladder or kidney
Preparation for procedure:
- Fasting for at least 8 hrs prior scan (No food/drinks)
- For ultrasound kidneys/bladder, you may need a full bladder
- Take medication with small sips of water
- For diabetic patient, insulin is allowed
How the test is performed:
- Ultrasound machine makes images of organs and structures inside the body by sending out high frequency sounds waves that reflect off body structure, unlike X-ray/ CT scans, this test does not expose you to ionizing radiation.
- You may feel a little discomfort, the conducting gel may feel a little cold and wet.
- Use high-frequency sound waves to create an image of your thyroid
To screen high risk patients for thyroid malignancy, eg patients with history of familial thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type II and irradiated neck in childhood
To confirm presence of a thyroid nodule when physical examination is equivocal
To differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid masses, based on their sonographic appearance.
To differentiate between thyroid nodules and other cervical masses like lymphadenopathy, thyroglossal cyst and cystic hygroma.
To evaluate diffuse changes in thyroid parenchyma.
To detect post-operative residual or recurrent tumor in thyroid bed or metastases to neck lymph nodes.
To guide diagnostic (FNA cytology/biopsy) and therapeutic interventional procedures.
- Benefits of US thyroid:
Safe and painless
- Preparation of US thyroid:
No fasting required
Lie on supine position with hyper-extended neck
- Limitation of US thyroid:
Unable to determine thyroid function (overactive/underactive/normal)
Note: There is no blood test that can detect thyroid cancer